Thursday, September 7, 2017

How to Reference Personal Communications

Personal communications may be private letters, memos, some electronic communications (e.g., email or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), personal interviews, telephone conversations, etc. Because they do not provide recoverable data, personnel communications are NOT included in the List of References at the end of your research paper. Cite any personal communications as an in-text citation only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible.
Samples:
M. E. Daniels (personal communication, March 2, 2014) explained in an email that…
 OR
The interviewee (M.E. Daniels, personal communication, March 2, 2014) explained during our interview that…

If you are citing a recording or archived copy of a personal communication (e.g., email message, interview, etc.), these forms are recoverable and should be referenced in your List of References as a online forum post, tape recording, video etc.


From: Citing References in Text, Section 6.20, Personal Communications, APA Publication Manual (6th ed) (2010)